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Making it by Hand by Grama Trudy Initially, crafting arose out of necessity, not out of desire; now it is relief of boredom, and an hobby. Most of the time if there is a need to express a th…
Making it by Hand
by Grama Trudy
Initially, crafting arose out of necessity, not out of desire; now it is relief of boredom, and an hobby. Most of the time if there is a need to express a thought, I make a card; if there is need to give a gift, I make it.
Granny (my grandmother) versed me well in the art of creativity and sewing. In earlier years, I rarely spent time there at her house unless it was to learn or fulfill a need.
Now, it’s different; a great deal of time is spent creating, not because I have to, but because I want to. It is not usual for me to have various projects going at once.
One main project is making finger puppets. It all started because I saved bits and pieces of socks left over from making stuffed dolls for a great grandchild.
The bits and pieces were set aside because I didn’t want to waste. I was thinking I may use them someday.
My daughter asks, “what are you going to do with these bits and pieces?’ I reply, “I don’t know. I haven’t figured that out yet.” She suggests, “Why not make some finger puppets.” I experiment with the concept until arriving at a solution and complete my first one
It wasn’t very appealing, but with each attempt, the method and puppets evolve.
Initially they are completely hand stitched, now it’s a combination of machine and hand. The designs and methods are my own, developed through trial and error over time.
Two puppets that won second place ribbons at the fair are on display in our home now.
Newer creations may be seen on display on hand molds in other places in the house.
Each puppet person I make is different; there are no two exactly the same.
They are intended for babies. But I have given them to adults. The puppets help interactions with a child, especially infants. They are a tool to help with the development and strengthening of the eye muscles and eye and hand coordination in infancy. They are also useful as a teething helper; the soft but firm construction allows the infant to bite down relieving their pain without adding to it.
They are completely washable and dry able; they come out looking new again. That is a plus since they spend a lot of time in the infants mouth when they are teething. They are toys, pacifying the infant.
A puppet is a perfect companion for a small child when traveling, in public, or at home. A child’s attachment to the puppets grows as they play and interact with them; sleep with them, teeth with them. They learn to love them.
It warms my heart to see them enjoy them.
by Trudy A. Martinez
originally posted: February 17,2011 Edited to include the Perfect Ending December 16, 2015
Out of the Fog Came Life: A Stylistic Analysis of Dickens’s Bleak House
The imagery in Bleak House reveals a revelation of possibilities that petitions both a pessimistic and an optimistic existence. The beginning is the end. The end is the beginning of judgment. The words paint a picture, a warning of a possible end, giving a pessimistic view of that city coming into judgment. The four elements: earth, water, fire, and air that frame the beginning of the earth in the Holy Bible also frame the desolate beginning of Bleak House with its possible end. The middle links the beginning and the end through the characters representative of both good and evil who guide the societal participants at all levels of existence to their destination in life or death. In the end, the ending is a new beginning, mending a separation between man and woman, joining them in both love and marriage; this scene paints an optimistic view of a promise land free from destructive imagery.
Dickens inaugurates his imagery by using a verb style hypotaxis where the ranking is done for us while the all knowing narrator informs the reader of any judgment lest we be guilty of judging. His play on words in the hypotaxis style creates an image of the beginning of the end with all of the four elements at work. For instance, the weather issues forth the mud, symbolizing corruption, where the “foot passengers . . . slipping and sliding” in and out of their faith add “new deposits” of “crust” to the earth. The retirement of the water (a symbol of the pure at heart ascending to Heaven) is seen “hanging in the misty clouds” protected from the fog that weaves in and out, spreading corruption everywhere at all levels of society and to all its classes, while at the same time, destroying the natural elements. The pure at heart are protected from the destruction and blindness created because they are housed within the structure of a prepositional phrase “as if they were up in a balloon.” Hovering above and “Peeping” down upon a pestilence in progress (Dickens 49). The fire issues forth its aftermath: the “smoke making a soft black drizzle with flakes of “soot” raining on and “mourning . . . for the death of the sun” (Dickens 49). The air, suffering from the effects of the death of the sun, produces a “haggard and unwilling look,” forming a gaseous appearance that looms “through the fog in divers places (Dickens 49)” toward those who are deserving of God’s judgment.
Period writers arm themselves with His judgment, prophesying the coming of the bridegroom who, ridding the earth of the “Megalosarus,” a dragon simulating the devil, brings about the death of the elements. Why else would “the two speechless gazers” after “justice was done” bend “themselves down to the earth, as if in prayer” in Hardy’s Tess of the D’Urbervilles? Were they not made aware of His presence? Was it just a coincidence that Adam’s occupation was a carpenter capable of winning over the priestess Dinah presented as if she was pure and innocence in Adam Bede or was it merely that the author, George Eliot’s vision blurred? I think not! After all, the all-knowing narrator allows her to confess in the novel, hinting of her defect and her judgment before God:
“The mirror is doubtless defective: the outlines will sometimes be disturbed, the reflection faint or confused; but I feel as much bound to tell you as precisely as I can what that refection is, as if I were in the witness-box, narrating my experience on oath (174).”
Others in the same period present and depict London in a similar light, exposing situations deserving of God’s judgment, while at the same time, teaching the eye to hear as if fulfilling the prophecy of Isaiah (Matthew 13:13-17) while focusing on the position of woman in society. For example, Blake’s central concern was the Infants cry, pointing to the sin of man as the reason for the Harlot’s curse we hear while he hears the Harlots (plural) curse (swear) because of the tear (separation) of the Infants tear from their rightful place. Blake teaches his reader to hear with their eyes through the transparent chiasmas he creates. Similarly, one must question whether the Harlot’s curse put upon Lady Deadlock in Bleak House is actually man’s curse for allowing and bringing about her separation from her child, Esther.
Mrs. Rouncewell announces that the sound of the Ghost’s Walk must be heard when she tells a child, “I am not sure it is dark enough yet, but listen! Can you hear the sound upon the terrace, through the music, and the beat, and everything? This sound she says, “You cannot shut it out” (Dickens 141). And then again one might ask how was the blind man in Flaubert’s Madame Bovary able to see Emma’s sin and rebuke her for it when he could only hear? Could it be he is a messenger sending forth a rebuke to all of us so that we will become aware of the writing on the wall and hear with our eyes the same beat and music being played for us by God Almighty from the break of His day? Although each instance centers in on a different aspect of woman’s existence, all communicate a need for change.
Bleak House calls to mind the sin of Eve and the need for the removal of false images before the sight of God. For instance, Esther’s aunt, her godmother, assumes the role of a god, issuing forth judgment when she says, “Your mother, Esther, is your disgrace, and you were hers” (Dickens 65). Further evidence of her role as a god is given through her paralleling herself to Christ: “I have forgiven her,” she said, “I, the sufferer” (Dickens 65). But only God in Heaven can truly forgive and Christ already paid with his life by suffering for our sins. Why then is Esther’s aunt taking on such a role? Why is Esther made to suffer at the hands of another and a woman at that?
In essence, Esther asks these questions herself when she reads the book of St. John to her aunt and exclaims, “He that is without sin among you, let him first cast a stone at her! (Dickens 66)” At this point, an abrupt switch from the verb style Esther reads from the Holy Bible to the noun style hypotaxis where the aunt’s role is cast within a different structure. Esther is “stopped by her godmother’s rising, putting her hand to her head, and crying out in an awful voice, from quite another part of the book . . . “ (Dickens 67). Here again, there is an abrupt change; this time to a verb style as she attempts to assume a different role, deceiving the child and freeing herself from her confinement. Unfortunately, the role she attempts to assume is that of a false god, using God’s words as her own, warning Esther of destruction: ‘ “Watch ye therefore! Lest . . . he find you sleeping” ‘(Dickens 67), and forgetting that God is an angry God and a jealous God; the aunt makes the mistake of overly extending her influence, and she unthinkingly spouts out: “And what I say unto you, I say unto all, Watch!” Consequently, God struck her down. He Judged her instantly.
At once, the verb style returns to a noun style when the aunt is spoken of by the naïve narrative of Esther, but the noun style works against its subject: Esther’s emotional plea to her aunt, the anaphora: I + kissed, [I] + thanked, and [I] + prayed, [I] + asked, [I] + [asked], [I] + entreated, failed because the aunt had over stepped her bounds by assuming the character of the antichrist and was, therefore, instantly judged.
Esther avoids an immediate judgment because she is still a child, investigating the choices available to her with the words of her aunt still ringing in her ears: “Pray daily that the sins of others be not visited upon your head, according to what is written” (Dickens 65). From this point, the novel becomes Esther’s bildungsroman as she moves from an unfavorable light toward a more favorable one. Just as Esther moves, the written word moves. For instance, noun style changes to a verb style, the hypotaxis style, where everything is determined for us, changes to a parataxis style where the choice is left up to us; and we are made able to link good to the bad as if administering a pill to cure its ills.
The change in Esther, just as the change in the written style of the words on the page, becomes apparent in Esther when she administers a pill to herself. Here, she stresses self-denial and a willingness to seek and discover the answers. The absence of prepositional phrases, the jailed structure that inhibits choice, highlights the change in the structure just as it highlights the change in Esther and favors her for her choice of thinking of others first:
“I don’t know how it is; I seem to be always writing about myself. I mean all the time to write about other people, and I try to think about myself as little as possible, and I am sure, when I find myself coming into the story again, I am really vexed and say, ‘Dear, dear, you tiresome little creature. I wish you wouldn’t!’ But it is all of no use (Dickens 163).”
It is of no use not speaking of Esther because speaking of Esther is the only way to reveal the methods and the formula for change and its reward or damnation. The others around her paint the picture of how things are going to be. For example, Mr. Skimpole is seen receiving his reward for his faith. The table was set for him: “There was honey on the table, and it led him into the discourses about the Bees. . . He protested against the overwhelming assumptions of bees.” The status the “busy bees” sold their souls for was given him by them. He stood firm and did not allow them to be a model. The station of the bees “was ridiculous:” a “position, to be smoked out of your fortune with brimstone” (Dickens 143).
Mr. Jarndyce guides Esther from the fire and smoke to discovery of the unknown and to her pleasure as if throwing water on her, baptizing her, and awakening her from a sleep. Esther tells us that the signs were “At first,” only “faintly discernible in the mists,” and acknowledges that “above them . . . later stars still glimmered” (Dickens 142). Is it just a coincidence that Esther is sent for and brought out of the mist “On the” very “day, after” her false image, the “poor good god mother, “the antichrist, “was buried,” and “the gentlemen in black with the white neckcloth reappeared,” announcing: “My name is Kenge . . . you may remember it, my child; Kenge and Carboy, Lincoln’s Inn?”(Dickens67).
Does he not call to mind one holding the balances in his hand? He sure appears so on the page for Kenge first appears in the noun style and then abruptly switches to the verb style when he speaks. It stands to reason that just after Jarndyce announces “that Boythorn,” who was “the loudest boy in the world, and now the loudest man”, was coming down on a visit that he and his guests “observed the favorable omen” (Dickens 166). The opposite occurs on page 66 when the one that was, the god-MOTHER OF HARLOTS is struck down after trying to steal the thunder of the words of THE KING OF KINGS, AND LORD OF LORDS.
We are told by Boythorn, “We have been misdirected” by “the most intolerable scoundrel on the face of the earth” (Dickens 166). Mr. Boythorn asks, “Is there anything for me from your men, Kenge and Carboy?” after he identifies Sir Leicester as Sir Lucifer and “calls attention to” the controversy of trespass., concerning “the green pathway” that Sir Leicester claims right away to but that is “now the property of Mr. Lawrence Boythorn”(Dickens 166-170). Did not he state: “No closing of my path, by any Deadlock!”
In contrast, Richard, thinking only of himself, “one of the most restless creatures in the world” takes a different route: He goes from what is considered a favorable light to an unfavorable one. Richard stresses self-love and a willingness to accept a different calling: “. . . The inclination of his childhood for the sea” (Dickens 163-164). Unlike Esther, Richard’s speech moves from a verb style to noun style. For example, Richard says: “So, cousin . . . We are never to get out of Chancery!” And the style abruptly changes to a noun style as he continues to say: “We have come by another way to our place of meeting yesterday, and – by the Great Seal, here’s the old lady again!”(Dickens 97) His choice was that of the easy way out as if he could change the direction the wind blows.
Finding that he has to work for his place, he places his confidence in the world whose outward appearance of luxury and fashion veils the inward corruption. The same becomes his religion and the High Lord Chancellor becomes his idol. This is evidenced when he confides in Esther:
“So I apprehend it’s pretty clear . . . that I shall have to work my own way. Never mind! Plenty of people have had to do that before now, and have done it. I only wish I had the command of a clipping privateer, to begin with, and could carry off the Chancellor and keep him on short allowance until he gave judgment in our cause. He’d find himself growing thin, if he didn’t look sharp! (Dickens 164)”
Hence, Richard becomes the kindling that fuels the wheels of corruption, thinking his dream of success lies just around the next turn as the wheels forever grind him further down toward his desolate destination of destruction and death. For example, his guide toward destruction, Mr. Vholes issues forth all manners of lies, eating upon Richard’s very flesh as if he were a cannibal (Dickens 605). And then again, he listened to the wrong voices when Mr. Vholes says, “A good deal is doing, sir. We have to put our shoulders to the wheel, Mr. Carstone, and the wheel is going round” (Dickens 607):
“I ought to imitate you, in fact, Mr. Vholes? Says Richard, sitting down again with an impatient laugh, and beating the Devil’s Tattoo with his boot on the patternless carpet” (Dickens 607).
In the beginning of the end, all the pestilence that was weaving through the streets in the fog was directed toward “the Lord High Chancellor” who having:
“A foggy glory round his head, softly fenced in with crimson cloth and curtains . . . outwardly directing his contemplation to the lantern in the roof, where he can see nothing but fog” (Dickens 50),
Let his house become desolate and unworthy of praise.
Quite the opposite of the Chancellor, Mr. John Jarndyce who converts his inheritance of a Bleak House left to him by his ancestors to a house of beauty by ridding the inside of its corruption of dirt with the application of a little water as if sent from God to bear witness of Truth.
Jarndyce compares the likeness of the former state of Bleak House to that city, burning in brimstone and the House built to fulfill the bridegroom’s coming, a promise, to the bride (earth). For what other reason would everyone at Bleak House view Mr. Boythorn’s coming as “the favorable omen,” confirming Jarndyce’s role as the baptist when he says, “Now, will you come upstairs” and Boythorn answers:
“By my soul, Jarndyce, . . . if you had been married, I would have turned back at the garden-gate . . .I wouldn’t be guilty of the audacious insolence of keeping a lady [bride] of the house waiting all this time, for any earthly consideration. I would infinitely rather destroy myself – infinitely rather! (Dickens 166-168).”
The end is left for the reader to decide whether it is a new beginning or an actual judgment of earth. Jarndyce sums it up:
“I have never lost my old names, nor has he lost his; nor do I ever when he is with us, sit in any other place than in my old chair at his side. Dame Trot, Dame Durden, Little Woman! – all just the same as ever; and [Esther] answer[s], Yes, dear Guardian! Just the same . . . (Dickens 934).”
The hypotaxis style changes to a parataxis verb style on page 892, leaving the reader to interpret and to link back the participants in the society.
In Bleak House, Esther is the pill capable of curing society of its ills. Her marriage to Woodcourt is the perfect coming together: Woodcourt administers aid to the poor as a doctor. He is powerful with the capability of tolerating the poor without complaining about their disagreeable condition or any contagion they might spread.
For instance, to Joe, the doctor shows compassion; and he is gentle and patient and caring, recognizing what all the Mrs. Jellabys’ of society are too blind to ascertain: that charity begins at home, that the poor at home need the attention of the populace more than those abroad who are encroach upon with only a hope of the blind leading the blind.
Esther’s own blindness in her earlier illness reveals a sort of prophecy: “and the blind shall be made to see.” Esther is made to see. The scars on her face cannot hide the beauty within. She knows it is her duty to help others. Dickens makes it her duty to open the eyes of the public to a different attitude. Her presence exposes the ills of society.
For example, her mother marries for position, leaving love to the way side, causing her separation from her lover and from her illegitimate child, Esther. Jarndyce can be seen as a disciple, holding Ester’s hand and guiding her through society while she exposes the ills and then relinquishing her promise hand when the opportunity arises to unite her housekeeping cures with the doctor able to administer the cures necessary for the poor.
Woodcourt, her husband, remarks to her, when she looks in the mirror, that her beauty within is shining through. Esther, herself, recognizes it is not only her husband that administers an antidote to society. This reflects and emphasizes her narrative comment through the use of the uppercase “M” to express Me when she reflects the reaction of the community to her as Mrs. Woodcourt.
Esther holds the key to the housekeeping chores of society; Mr. Jarndyce gives her the key. Hence, it is only proper that with her marriage to Woodcourt, she shall come to be the housekeeper of the new Bleak House, capable of curing the ills of society.
The Veil of Servitude, a comparative analysis of the treatment of woman in Victorian age literature
By Trudy A. Martinez
The beliefs of Evangelicals and the treatment of women in the Victorian Age echo the teachings of the Old Testament in the Holy Bible. In both belief and treatment, woman is an object preferred for her outer beauty or nurtured or cultivated as a servant for the pleasure or the benefit of man. For instance when a Victorian woman eventually marries to man, she is expected to become an extension of him in all respects: to become, in a sense, “bone of his bone” and “flesh of his flesh”. In principle, woman is envisioned “. . . to be [man’s] second self” (Bronte 281). Consequently, woman is suppressed: she loses her identity; man becomes her master; and her life evolves around a duty: “. . . to honour and obey him . . .” (Butler 87).
The pledge, “to honour and obey”, emerges as a villain and brings forth what appears as Butler’s purpose: exposing the reality of woman’s position in societal beliefs and customs. In The Way of All Flesh, as in the Victorian Age, the belief is woman’s “. . . first obedience to God lay in obedience to [her husband]”. Butler displays this concept through Theobald. For example, if Christiana does not hold true to her promise “. . . to honour and obey [Theobald]. . .” Theobald needs only to “. . . buy Milton’s prose works and read his pamphlet on divorce” and then follow through by getting a divorce (Butler 87-88). Divorce is a means of escape for man if woman is foolish enough to reject the male dominance imposed.
The peril of divorce forces the Victorian woman to comply with the wishes of her spouse for woman has no place within the society of man: she is hopelessly imprisoned; this aspect of woman’s existence is pictorially portrayed by Alfred Tennyson in his poem, Mariana. In the poem, Mariana’s feelings rightfully correspond with wasteland imagery:
“The broken sheds look sad and strange:
Uplifted was the clinking latch;
Weeded and worn the ancient thatch
Upon the lonely moated grange” (396).
Tennyson pictures Mariana dissipating in loneliness while she continually anticipates the return of her lover. Consequently, Mariana is seen as sexually frustrated with no purpose in life other than to wait for him. Her statement,
“. . . ‘my life is dreary,
He cometh not,’ . . .
. . . ‘I am aweary, aweary,
I would that I were dead!’’(396),
alludes to her being alone and isolated in a dream-like state with no hope of being free from the prison-like atmosphere that is created (396). Mariana, herself, sees no escape from her loneliness; this is evidenced through the parallel action of her rejection of life at both the beginning and end of the poem. Only Mariana’s final weeping, “. . . ‘I am aweary, aweary’” and her plea, “. . . Oh God, that I were dead.’”, displays a perception of an unyielding hope (398).
An unyielding hope is all Tennyson’s characterization of Mariana shares with the characterization of Jane in Bronte’s novel, Jane Eyre. Instead of just an unyielding hope of escape through death, Bronte offers a suggestive alternative that leans toward equality of the sexes; it is driven by the love and the passion of Jane and Rochester. Even though the story interestingly compels ideals similar to Tennyson’s, it goes beyond Tennyson’s scope by introducing a doctrine which very nearly represents the New Testament book, I Corinthians 6 verse 3. In this view, “. . . the husband [is to] render unto the wife due benevolence; and likewise also the wife unto the husband.” This verse stings with equality. And consequently, so does Jane Eyre when she says to Rochester: “it is my spirit that addresses your spirit; just as if both . . . [of us] . . . stood at God’s feet, equal as we are!”(281).
Equality is an issue that gains importance with Jane. It is the requisite that stimulates benevolence. Rochester accepts Jane’s desire for congruity because she stands firm in her ideals. She says, “. . . no net ensnares me: I am free . . . with an independent will . . . “(Bronte 282). But the same is not true for other women nor is equality accepted within society.
Bertha (a symbol of a married Victorian woman) reveals the degree of damage a lack of equality places upon women and even the need for love and happiness. Justifiably and symbolically Bertha rips her bridal veil in half. The ripping of the veil is not done out of jealousy. Instead, the ripping of the veil is a means of exposing the servitude, defilement, and deterioration of woman. As a hideous creation, Bertha, “. . . turned to the mirror . . .” a “reflection” of mood and feeling gives emphasis to the vampire-like quality of the Victorian marriage practice and the degradation of woman as a whole. The ripping of the “. . . princely [extravagant] . . .” bridal veil suggests a need for the separation of materialism from the marriage (Bronte 308). Hence, this seems justifiably reasonable, for after all, “. . . it was only the [extravagant] veil that was harmed” (Bronte 312).
For what other reason do Bertha’s violent actions leave Jane and her simple handmade veil untouched? The answer appears to be because Jane and her simple veil represent woman’s independent choice and the need for a necessary change in marriage creeds. Therefore, Bertha’s action of renting her own veil merely symbolizes and paves the way for the introduction of such a new marriage creed that will lift the veil of servitude from woman.
The lifting of the veil of servitude not only encompasses an equal and deep inspiring love and passion between both man and woman but also engages both man and woman’s attention towards a love for God. Conceivably then, Bertha may be seen as giving her life for a new creed for all women. Bronte provides an illusion that justifies this impression when she describes the room Mr. Mason occupies as he lay injured: “. . . the shadows darken . . . [then], under the hangings of the vast old [marriage] bed . . . rose an ebon crucifix and a dying Christ” (Bronte 237). The black crucifix exemplifies the suffering that evolves through a loveless marriage. Sequentially, death is its unison.
The marriage between Bertha and Rochester is an arrangement provided for by family. Hence, Bertha’s violent and seemingly revengeful attack upon Mr. Mason, her brother, gives reason whereby understanding is gained. Bertha like Mariana is hopelessly imprisoned (restrained even), wishing for death. How else is she to react to her grueling circumstance? Two such souls as Bertha and Rochester can never hope to achieve equality in marriage or share a sense of love and passion. They do not join in marriage as described in I Corinthians 6:3. Instead, their marriage is orchestrated by others for the sake of “the root of all evil”, money.
Money and the prestige that comes along with it are the forces Dickens perceives to have driven man down a path of unhappiness and guilt. Dickens presents Pip as a stereotypical male of society who is being torn between choice and class separation rules.
Conversely, woman is not typically given a choice. Most women are forced to accept their lot in life. Certainly, no one can blame Blanche Ingram for attempting to improve her rank in life by seeking to marry Rochester. It is true, money and material gain is important to her. All the same, she knows no better. In other words, she is the product of a male dominated society. Consequently, she does what is expected of her.
However, Dickens clearly demonstrates the male in the Victorian society has a choice. For instance, Pip knows what his choices are: either he can choose to pursue a woman with inner beauty like Biddy from the lower class level or one whose beauty is only skin deep like Estella from the upper class level. Accordingly, once Pip knows he has great expectations, his choice to pursue Estella for her material outer beauty and schooled charm predominates. In the eye of Dickens, the lower class woman is more loving and deserving whereas, the upper class woman is revengeful and even insensitive. Class separation places emphasis on the contrasts between Biddy and Estella. Estella acknowledges Pip’s change of heart and his choice when she says, “Since your change of fortune and prospects, you have changed your companions’ . . . ‘And necessarily,’ . . . ‘what was fit company for you once, would be quiet unfit for you now’”(Dickens 258). Still, Pip knew he has made an error in judgment because his personal guilt grows out of proportion, but he is unable to resist temptation. Consequently, Pip’s guilt continually reflects back to him when he thinks of home.
Yet, Estella feels no guilt or remorse: she is trained to be revengeful; she does not view her actions as such nor does she remember the cruel manner in which she treats Pip. When Pip questions her, Estella says, “I don’t remember”.
Pip reveals his astonishment when he replies, “Not remember that you made me cry?” Estella’s insensitivity “. . . made (Pip) cry again inwardly – and (Pip acknowledged to himself) that [this was] the sharpest crying of all” (Dickens 258-259).
Biddy’s tear, however, reflects an inward sorrow for Pip. Of course Pip has to admit, “If [he] could have settled down . . . [Biddy] and [he] and Joe would have wanted nothing . . . “(Dickens 155). Consequently, as Dickens emphasizes through Pip’s expectations, class separation is what separates man from the culmination of a love and happiness.
Bronte rejects the idea of separation of class as a reason where love is concerned. Therefore, in her novel, Jane comes to love Mr. Rochester and he likewise grows to love her. She is plain in looks and dress, like Biddy, so it is evident that her outer beauty is not what attracts Rochester to her. Naturally, each stands their own grounds at first. Then slowly they relinquish unto the other a benevolence that grows into passion and “. . . called [for] a paradise of union . . . “(Bronte 284). Hence, the Victorian Society perceives the story of Jane Eyre as shocking. Man and woman alike object to the passionate elements the novel presents. The outward show of passion (by woman) suggests a change in society, encompassing the lives of both man and woman. Was the male dominating Victorian society unnerved and checked by an arousing fear? Or was society’s reaction to the novel and outward manifestation of guilt?
A manifestation of guilt is not reflected in The Way of All Flesh. Instead of a manifestation of guilt, Butler clearly exposes and defines woman’s duty. Christina feels a sense of duty to her father. Therefore, once Theobald is brought to the rectory to help her ailing father, she and her four sisters “. . . played at cards for him’” as their father suggests in order to determine to whom will be given the opportunity to win him for their husband, as if he is a prize (Butler 73). Here Butler accentuates the gamble that is involved in the marriage practice. The sisters that present a threat to the winner of the card game are quickly removed from the household. Competition for love’s sake is not allowed. There is no love or passion, only a duty. Hence, immediately after their marriage, Theobald pursues male dominance. Christina relinquishes, begging forgiveness for defiance. Christina’s duty to her father merely transfers to her husband as if her duty is a legacy of worth. Therefore when Theobald “. . . kissed away her tears, and assured her that he knew she would be a good wife to him”. Christina “exclaimed . . . [out of necessity] ‘you are an angel.’ Theobald believed her” (Butler 89). Consequently from then on, a representation of false idolization is provided gratuitously for him by his wife and he expects her gratitude for his tolerance of her.
Jane, on the other hand, sees herself molding Rochester into a false idol. She admits to herself that she “. . . could not . . . see God for His creature: of whom [she] had made an idol” (Bronte 302). When knowledge of Rochester’s sin comes forth on the day they are to be wed, both are brought to crossroads. Both are made to bear the burden of their individual sins. Both are forced to separate just as the chestnut-tree symbolizes when it split down the center equally. But yet, their hearts linger and yearn to reunite. Even though Jane is not blameless in her own eyes, she is always searching for an answer. She is aware of the necessity of punishment and repentance. Inwardly, she is content. Nevertheless, Jane feels “degraded” as she “. . . [sunk] . . . on the scale of social existence”, she does not “. . . hate of despise herself . . . for these feelings’. Instead, she strives “to overcome them” (Bronte 385). She asks God to direct her (Bronte 386). She believes both her and Rochester “. . . were [equally] born to strive and endure . . . “(Bronte 343).
In contrast, endurance to St. John Rivers, an Evangelical, means self-denial. Equality is out of the question. Even with all his “Zealous . . . labors, blameless . . . life and habits, he . . . did not appear to enjoy . . . mental serenity . . . [or a] inward content” (Bronte 378). His life is like his sermons: “. . . compressed, condensed, controlled” (Bronte 378). He does not allow his own heart to be equally drawn toward love or passion. For instance, when Rosamond is near, he denies himself love by showing indifference to the pain he feels but the truth of his feelings can be seen:
“. . . his hands would tremble and his eye burn. He seemed to say, with his sad and resolute look . . . ‘I love you, and I know you prefer me . . . [but] my heart is already laid on . . . the fire . . . it will soon be . . . a sacrifice consumed’” (Bronte 393-394).
Consequently, a veil is placed over his heart ad over his life. The veil prevents him from seeing or reaping heavenly rewards. Therefore, instead of pursuing Rosamond for his wife, he seeks Jane, whom he does not love. St. John’s proposal leaves much to be desired:
“God and nature intended you for a missionary’s wife. It is not personal, but mental endowments . . . you are formed for labor, not for love. A missionary’s wife you must – shall be. You shall be mine: I claim you – not for pleasure, but for my Sovereign’s service’ (Bronte 423).
The differences between St. John and Jane are monumental. St. John treats earthly love as a sin of the flesh. Hence, he fears love and therefore, equality. His earthly sufferings are not derived from the punishment of sin. Instead, his torment ensues through the denial of love and equality. St. John thinks it is his duty to sacrifice (Bronte 443). As a result, he labors hard and long but never reaps earthly rewards. The veil of servitude he places over himself to hinder sin bars him from love. Like Mariana his spirit is in a prison-like environment; he is alone and withdrawn from sexuality; but in contrast to Tennyson’s Mariana, his prison is of his own making.
Jane, on the other hand, is a free spirit: she asks for equality and it is granted her; she seeks love and finds Rochester. She is unyielding to the temptation to marry for a reason other than love; and she cannot settle for servitude to man because her servitude is to God. Therefore, Jane earns equality and benevolence “because [she is her] husband’s life as fully as he [is her life]” (Bronte 475). Consequently and in my opinion, Bronte’s representation of woman in the Victorian Age is more relevant than that of Butler, who merely exposes the reality of woman’s position, or Tennyson who merely pictures woman wasting away in a prison-like atmosphere, or Dickens who blames class separation for man’s guilt when he errs in judgment. Bronte, however, not only presents realities but also alternatives; she contrasts the male who is wasting away with the female; and she also treats both male and female equally regardless of their class separation. Therefore, Bronte sees and anticipates society’s position from a male’s point of view as if she is playing a game of chess. As a result, in the end she seems to say, “Checkmate”.
Bronte, Charlotte. Jane Eyre. Penguin Classics. Q. D. Leavis Ed.
Penguin Books: New York. 1985.
Butler, Samuel. The Way of All Flesh. Penguin Classics. Edited by James Cochrane with an Introduction by Richard Hoggart. Penguin Books: New York. 1986.
Dickens, Charles. Great Expectations. Penguin Classics. Angus Calder Ed. Penguin Books: New York. 1985.
Tennyson, Alfred, Lord. “Mariana”. The Oxford Anthology of English Literature: Victorian Prose and Poetry. Edited by Lionel Trilling of Columbia University and Harold Bloom of Yale University. Oxford University Press: New York. 1973. 396-398.
By Trudy Martinez
According to The American College Dictionary to reconstruct means to construct again; to rebuild; make over. What happens in the South following the Civil War does not meet the definition of reconstruction. It is only a means of pacifying the guilt of those who originally profit from the slave trade. The actions they take are calculative, necessary moves that prove profitable, once again, for the North, the rich, and the rising upper-middle-class, the bourgeoisie, allowing their entrance into the Industrial Revolution. It is a means of gain from the misfortune of the southerners, the poor whites, and the blacks; a means of appeasement; an influx of Hope; a road block to revolution.
History dictates, as long as there is Hope for a better future, the common people will accept the hard times and the struggle to obtain and improve their status. How else can the government justify its action of freeing the salves, while at the same time, breaking the promise of 40 acres and a mule? The blacks are left with nothing more than the Hope of achieving a better tomorrow at the mercy of their previous owners, the Southern Elite.
The Freedman Bureau, a token agency (backed by the government, influenced by the rich, but yet, limited), was expected to achieve the impossible. From the beginning, the bureau has three strikes against it; it offers only hope and token justice by controlling the impersonal forces that determine history. One can only wonder if this is why President Lincoln, the role model for the common man, lost his life. Was the President’s death also determined by of one of those impersonal forces upon history? Did Lincoln make his strategy for reconstruction of our torn country known to the wrong people? These are questions for which we may never find the answers? Violence and a strong middle-class objection always pave the way for change in America, that is, when the change does not benefit the rich and the upper-middle-class.
In America (the land of the free, the government of the people), freedom is never a problem, or is it? Does a government of the people mean all the people: the common people, the blacks too? In 1865, is freedom a myth?
Guilt and restitution for the sins of the past alone does not free the slaves; it is a combination of greed and the desire to follow the footsteps of our mother county, England, into the Industrial Revolution. The slave trade is not just a source of guilt, but also a hindrance to progress placed on society by the greed of the past Northern Elite. The slaves only need to be free, no longer owned like cattle or a piece of property. What happens to the slaves after they are free is of no real concern to the Northern elite. True freedom is a luxury of the rich; one can only acquire freedom through status, prestige, or money; it is not a common man’s commodity.
Look at our past, the evidence is there. Our government is not a government of the people, at least not the common people, as the government wants us to believe; instead we are a government of the rich, the prestigious, the corrupt, the greedy, and the bourgeoisie. Our government is governed by the desires and whims of the rich. The common people are not a concern of the government until their Hope begins to fade; threats of revolution are in evidence by violence, loss of lives, and the voice of the middle-class objections are heard loud and clear.
Our sense of Nationalistic thinking begins with the birth of our flag, the red, white, and blue, signifying the blood, sweat, and tears of our fore fathers who win freedom from our mother country, England; they establish our Constitutional government, our Republic, by which the freedom of all the people are insured and protected. With this Nationalistic thinking, the common people are programed to think we are unique, free, equal, and that truth and justice prevail; we are one nation, with a common goal. That thinking remains true until the north desires to enter the industrial revolution. Then our common goal is obliterated.
The South didn’t cooperate. The South didn’t want to progress; it was enjoying all the advantages of slavery; it didn’t want to change; its goals differ. The violence of the Civil War is necessary before change can occur to achieve the desires of the Northern rich, to progress, to go forward, and to increase their wealth. The rich control the government; they want change only if it is beneficial to them, not when they pay a cost. The Civil War is a disagreement between the Southern rich and the Northern rich. In America, the rich grow richer at the expense of the poor, the working class, the common man, and the ethnic groups. The more blood, sweat, and tears the common man sheds, the wealthier the rich become. With the emancipation of the slaves, the Northern rich can induce the government into establishing a (forced) public education system. This education of the masses is a necessity for progress (if the Industrial Revolution is to be entered) and for the rich to prosper from it.
When it becomes evident the common people are more than eager to learn, not only does education need controls, but also limits to and for those segments of society that are to become the working class of the Industrial Revolution. The schools brain-wash the minds of the people by increasing the Nationalistic theme, i.e., to become one, together, with one goal, to increase the wealth of the nation, to build on the American Dream (the programed dream: as long as we try, work hard; we will get ahead), a new article of faith, a myth. The owners of the means of production and progress keep it that way (a myth) by resisting payment of the true value of labor and by not sharing the wealth with those who make it possible for them to obtain it.
The Industrial revolution is a boom for the rich. They justify their mistreatment of the working class, depriving them of the fruits of their labor, through the practice and acceptance of Social Darwinism (survival of the fittest).
The American government, the government of the people, during times of trouble, during hard times, turns its back on the needs of the common people, the working classes, i.e., the poor whites, the blacks, the Hispanics, the women, and the children. While simultaneously denying the acceptance and practice of the theories of Darwinism, the government allows the unjust practices of industry whose roots are in the theories of Social Darwinism. Why? Because, the theories and practice of “Social Darwinism” allow for a natural selection of the fittest, justifying the actions of the rich by allowing them to capitalize at the expense of the working class, the common people. Masses of wealth accumulate, as a result. So much wealth accumulates that the rich find it necessary to plan their next greedy step into what they refer to as progress, Imperialism.
In conclusion and in my opinion, to reconstitute the government would have been better solutions in 1865, i.e., reconstruct the government, not just the South, but the North as well. The radicals could have gotten the backing of the masses, but fear stood in their way. Fear of another revolution like the one unleashed in France in the year 1797. The radicals chose compromise at the expense and suffering of all future generations instead of facing the enviable, the necessity of change, i.e., of defining “freedom”, of defining “the government of the people” and achieving a real government of the people, the common people, all the people. Through the ending of injustice, invoking controls on the greedy, forcing “the owners of the means of production” to pay the true value of the labor and thereby, alleviating the unnecessary blood, sweat, and tears of the working classes, the aim of a government for all the people may achieve. One can only envision the outcome of what such a change might mean to America, i.e., utopia, little or no unemployment, rapid growth, and increased stability, a sense of pride surpassing the Nationalistic theme that gives a sense of false pride and of false reality.
Regardless, America achieves what no other country has ever accomplished: We remain strong and resolute irrespective of our faults. And we will continue to do so as long as we have Hope.
A SENSE OF JUSTICE—————–A Play in One Act
By Trudy A. Martinez
[Intended for a Mature Audience]
Copyright c 1996
Cast of Characters
Bertha: A young inquisitive little girl. SHE is the daughter of BOSWORTH and LINDSEY.
Bosworth: About thirty-five years old, HE is a demanding individual. Infatuated with his own image, HE secretly seeks self-satisfaction with other women. HE has an overly vivid imagination.
Lindsey: Thirty-two years old, SHE has a degree in Bio-Chemistry. Until recently, SHE worked outside the home. Now upon the urging of her husband, BOSWORTH, SHE stays home. To keep from getting bored, SHE has set up a laboratory in the basement. SHE is on the brink of a major discovery.
Meggan: A woman about fifty-five years old. SHE is recently divorced. SHE is a highly successful artist who has recently taken up sculpture as a hobby. MEGGAN lives next door to LINDSEY.
Margo: MEGGAN’s daughter. SHE is seventeen, beautiful, shapely, looking as if SHE just stepped off the cover of Playboy magazine.
Dr Haggard: BOSWORTH’s medical doctor.
Dr Null: A Doctor called in by DR HAGGARD to talk with BOSWORTH.
The home of BOSWORTH, LINDSEY, and BERTHA.
The seventh year of BOSWORTH and LINDSEY’s marriage.
Act I Scene 1
We are in the cluttered make-shift laboratory located in the basement of Bosworth’s home.
It is mid-afternoon. Seated on a stool is LINDSEY. Her arm is resting on a long medal table cluttered with test tubes and other instrumentation of all shapes and sizes. LINDSEY is busy working on a formula that is in a developmental stage. SHE stops momentarily to jot down the progression of her experiment in a journal. From the intercom on the wall behind the table, we hear a faint voice: “Mom, can I come down?”
Yes, Honey, come on down.
(At this point, BERTHA opens the door to the basement and peeps in)
Well, are you coming down? I am anxious to hear how your day was.
(BERTHA starts to descend down the stairs, holding the banister with one hand. As she steps down each step, she intentionally hits the metal tap on her shoe against the metal casement, causing a clinking noise.)
Well, how is my talkative, little girl (LINDSEY brushes the hair away from BERTHA’s eyes)
Is God a man like daddy?
(BERTHA looks up at her mother)
Did you discuss God in school?
(BERTHA moves her head up and then down shyly as she speaks softly)
Julie said–her dad was–God–
(BERTHA’S voice gains intensity)
Tell me it’s not true, Mom–She said, he is God cause he’s boss–and knows everything. (BERTHA heels and toes the metal tap on her shoes on the concrete floor, making a clanking noise)
LINDSEY (Giggling slightly)
Honey, man is not a God. God is called a father–but he’s not like your dad–no arms, no legs–can’t see him–He’s just–invisible–But He is there–everywhere. Besides, men don’t know everything–just think they do.
(BERTHA looks at her mother questioningly)
We tend to let your dad–think he’s boss–don’t we?
(BERTHA nods her head. SHE is smiling)
We kind ‘a, boost his ego–make him feel in charge. Daddy likes that–We give him–benevolence.
(BERTHA dances across the room, clinking her taps, as her mother talks. SHE stops in front of the chalkboard)
(BERTHA picks up a piece of chalk and attempts to write the word. SHE prints be-no-violence)
LINDSEY (Patiently redresses) (Lindsey pronounces the word in syllables)
Be-nev-o-lence, honey. Even though you’ve spelled it wrong, you’ve got it right! Where there is benevolence there is no violence because with benevolence comes–compassion. You know–love.
Oh–that mushy stuff.
END OF SCENE 1
ACT I Scene 2 AT RISE:
Lapse of time of only one hour. We are in the kitchen of BOSWORTH’s home.
LINDSEY is preparing dinner.
BOSWORTH enters, walks over to LINDSEY and pats her on the butt. Then HE brushes her hair off her neck and begins kissing her softly while his hands wander over her body.
If you want dinner, cut that out.
(Disinclined by her refusal to drop everything, BOSWORTH backs off)
(LINDSEY turns around to face BOSWORTH)
Hon, now’s not a good time. BERTHA’s–
Okay, you’ve made your point. We’ll just talk.
(BOSWORTH sits down at the table and begins to tap his fingers nervously)
How’s the project going?
(LINDSEY turns back around to the stove, picks up the spoon, and stirs the contents of the pot)
Did you get the kinks out of it? Are ya going to tell me what it is?
Not yet. But I’m working on it–won’t be long.
(BOSWORTH rises and moves toward the stove)
(LINDSEY moves toward the counter)
You’ll be the first to know when it’s perfected–
(BOSWORTH turns and glances at LINDSEY)
(Smiling, LINDSEY adds)
(BOSWORTH lifts the lid on one of the pans on the stove)
What’s for dinner?
(Not waiting for a response, BOSWORTH adds sarcastically)
Is this–one of your experiments?
(LINDSEY snatches the lid from his hand and slams it back on the pan)
Don’t have to be so–so–touchy.
What do you expect?
I’m going out after dinner.
(BOSWORTH looks down, avoiding eye contact)
Have some business–
BOSWORTH (Interrupting loudly)
I know what day it is.
(BOSWORTH moves around the room anxiously, expressing himself with his hands)
For God’s sake, LINDSEY, give me a break.
(BOSWORTH lowers his voice and his head)
Don’t I provide for you–don’t I? Huh?
(LINDSEY is displeased by BOSWORTH’s outburst. Controlling her anger and hiding her hurt, SHE moves over to the counter and starts yanking the leaves of the lettuce from their stock)
I have a right to go out–It’s just the guys.
(BOSWORTH paces the floor)
Don’t want them calling me hen-pecked.
(BOSWORTH stops next to the counter)
(BOSWORTH impatiently waits for an answer)
(LINDSEY vigorously snaps the remaining leaves from their base)
(BOSWORTH hits his fist on the counter in anger)
What do you mean by that? I’m not seeing a woman. For God’s sake–
If you ever—
(LINDSEY savagely chops the lettuce for a salad, slamming the blade of the knife down hard against the chopping block)
(LINDSEY slams the blade of the knife down with all of her might against the block)(BLACKOUT)
END OF SCENE 2
ACT I Scene 3
The next morning. LINDSEY is sitting at the kitchen table drinking a cup of coffee with MEGGAN. BOSWORTH has not returned home after going out with the guys the night before.
Leave him–the pain–just not worth it.
(MEGGAN reaches over and places her hand on LINDSEY’s hand)
Life’s too short–with AIDS–you’re playing with death.
(BOSWORTH appears at the doorway. The women do not see or hear him. HE quickly hides behind the door and listens)
Can I trust you with a secret?
(BOSWORTH crawls over to the cabinets. HE hides behind them, listening attentively)
Course ya can.
I’ve–I think–I’ve got an answer to my problem.
(BOSWORTH peeks out from behind the cabinets)
Going to kill him yourself?
No. Nothing like that–Something, worse than death–
(BOSWORTH retreats back behind the cabinets)
Going to pull a Bobbitt?
(BOSWORTH peeps out again to see LINDSEY’S response)
No. Bobbitt didn’t pull–
(LINDSEY gets up from the table)
(BOSWORTH quickly retreats back behind the cabinet to avoid being seen)
I’ve got to show you–be right back.
(MEGGAN watches as LINDSEY exits the room)
(LINDSEY reenters the room, holding what appears to be a transparent piece of material and a huge pair of scissors)
This may solve all my problems.
So–You’re going to Bob it after all.
(BOSWORTH peeps out, looking curiously stunned)
No. I’m going to cut it.
(BOSWORTH sinks back behind the cabinet)
(LINDSEY waves the transparent material)
What is it?
(MEGGAN reaches to feel the material)
Let me demonstrate.
(BOSWORTH curiously glances out from behind the cabinet and then back again)
Make a fist.
(MEGGAN makes a fist)
(BOSWORTH peeks out to see what the two are doing)
(LINDSEY throws the transparent material up in the air like a pizza. The material drops over MEGGAN’S fist. LINDSEY wraps the material around MEGGAN’S fist)
(MEGGAN touches the material next to her skin)
(BOSWORTH retreats quickly)
Open your hand.
(MEGGAN tries to open her hand)
Ouch! That stings! What the heck–is that?
(BOSWORTH quickly peeks out to see what is happening and then BOSWORTH draws his head back, disbelieving what he has heard)
(LINDSEY carefully unwraps MEGGAN’s hand)
BOSWORTH wants–wants to know what I’m working on–He made out with my last discovery–not this one–It’s my ticket–and BERTHA’s. Mine, not his. If only?
If only what?
If only, I could figure out how to mold it–
I mold things–a hobby of mine–
Can you mold a penis?
BOSWORTH says its–
(MEGGAN stands, turns, and motions to LINDSEY to follow her)
Come. You’ve got to see my set-up.
LINDSEY (Giggling slightly)
(LINDSEY stands and begins to follow MEGGAN out the door then stops abruptly)
I’ll send MARGO over.
Okay, sure–What have I got to lose?
(BOSWORTH peeps out, sees the two women leaving)
(The door can be heard slamming shut)
(BOSWORTH grasps his crotch and doubles over)
Ouch! Just pondering such a thought causes pain.
(BOSWORTH stands erect and proud, shrugging off all doubt of his superiority)
They’re only women. But–Nah–they don’t–they wouldn’t have the guts to–
(BOSWORTH doubles his fist and shadow boxes)
(BOSWORTH stops abruptly, looks down, and pats his groin)
It’s alright, big guy. I’ll protect you–no woman’s going to get the best of us–
(MARGO enters unannounced. Not noticing BOSWORTH, SHE struts seductively across the kitchen, drying her hair with a towel as SHE walks)
(BOSWORTH suddenly grasps his groin and yelps)
(Startled, MARGO stops and swings around to find BOSWORTH dancing around the floor in pain with his back to her)
I thought no one was home. Did you hurt yourself?
(MARGO retreats under her towel)
Are you okay?
(BOSWORTH, keeping his back to her, nods his head to signify he’s okay)
Are you okay?
I–I just hit my crazy bone.
I’ll be fine–just a crazy bone.
Mom asked me to come–Have to watch BERTHA.
(MARGO lifts her towel and peeps out)
(BOSWORTH points to the door leading to the other part of the house)
(MARGO continues drying her hair with the towel as SHE walks across the kitchen toward the hallway)
(BOSWORTH sneaks a peek at her. BOSWORTH doubles over again, moaning and grasping HIS groin)
Oh–My crazy bone.
END OF SCENE 3
Three months have passed. It is mid-morning. We are in DR HAGGARD’S office. BOSWORTH is seated on the edge of a gurney. HE is dressed in a hospital gown. BOSWORTH has a worried look on his face when DR HAGGARD enters the room.
(Holding the test results in his hand, DR HAGGARD shakes his head)
The tests–they’re negative.
(DR HAGGARD shrugs HIS shoulders)
The examination shows nothing. The tests show nothing. Your symptoms–Well, your symptoms are unheard of–
(BOSWORTH shrugs his shoulders in disbelief)
DR HAGGARD (Continued)
I don’t know what to say. This is very strange.
(DR HAGGARD scratches his head)
(DR HAGGARD mumbles to himself)
(DR HAGGARD regains his composure)
DR NULL may be able to help you. I don’t see what else I can do.
I’m not crazy–
I didn’t say: crazy. I–it might help to talk with DR NULL. He’s a friend of mine. He just happens to be in the next room anxiously waiting for me to take him to lunch. By the way, how does your wife react to your situation?
She doesn’t know.
How can she not know?
Avoid her. You know–make excuses–pretend sleep–
DR HAGGARD (Interrupting)
I really think I should see if NULL will speak with you–May I?
(Places his hand on the door knob)
(BOSWORTH looks at DR HAGGARD with a baffling expression. BOSWORTH nods his head)
(DR HAGGARD leaves the room)
(BOSWORTH sits, impatiently)
DR HAGGARD (Continued)
(DR HAGGARD returns to the room)
He’s offered to speak with you free of charge. May I ask him in?
Damn! Go ahead, let him in. Let’s get this over with.
(DR HAGGARD opens the door and invites NULL to join them. NULL extends his hand to BOSWORTH and then pats BOSWORTH on the shoulder)
Your Doctor tells me–ah–your case may be of interest to me. I have offered my services free of charge out of courtesy to HAGGARD. I am anxious to hear–perhaps–
DR HAGGARD (Interrupting)
I found no medical reason. BOSWORTH is in perfect health–physically fit. No medical reason what-so-ever. Just look at him–a perfect specimen.
(BOSWORTH lies down on the gurney)
Tell me about it.
Heard of Pavlov?
Ivan Pavlov, the physiologist?
Yeah, that’s the one. Well, I feel like one of his lab animals.
It all started a few months back–
DR NULL (Interrupting by clearing his throat)
Yes, go on.
I went to this party–see–you know the kind–lots of women, all shapes, color, and–oh what beauties. I left my wife at home, of course. You know–sometimes I just–Not anymore–I can’t stand to look at a woman–not even my wife. If I do–Oh the pain–
(BOSWORTH holds both of his hands over his groin and moans)
I had a lot to drink–I was feeling good–not drunk–just feeling good.
Pain–you experienced pain? When–when you looked at a woman at this party?
Did you sleep with a woman at this party?
Yeah. She was a knock-out! I stayed the night.
When you woke up–
No–much later. I went home. My wife was upset with me for being out all night. You know how women are–don’t understand–it’s not the same for them.
(Shaking his head back and forth)
She just doesn’t understand. We drank some coffee. Tried to talk to her–but I was just out of it–not much sleep the night before. You know. So, I went to bed. Later, when I woke up –tried to make up to her. She turned me on. Then, the pain. OH! It even hurts to think about it–
DR NULL (Interrupting)
It hurts now? Is it a shooting pain? What–
She says she can’t live without sex. I’m–I might as well be impotent! I keep telling her–I’ll never–I can’t tell her I can’t! That would be unheard of. It’s a–
DR NULL (Interrupting)
Sharp cessation? Do you feel guilty about that night?
Yeah–sharp. Guilty–no! Why? Should I feel guilty?
How has your wife been feeling lately?
(DR NULL looks over at DR HAGGARD)
She’s high spirited. She’s working on some special project in our basement–won’t tell me what–says I’ll be the first to know when it’s perfected. But I overheard her!–and her friend! They were plotting. You’ll never believe what–Doc, it’s perfected–it’s perfected right around my–
(BOSWORTH attempts to get up. His hands are cupped over his penis)
(DR HAGGARD gets up and walks over to BOSWORTH)
DR HAGGARD (Interrupting)
Lie still. Everything is normal–It’s your skin. I did a skin test–it is skin.
(NULL shakes his head in disbelief)
You don’t know my wife! She’s a genius! She’s found some way to fool even you–
(Pointing to his penis)
Its there–She’s put some invisible stuff on my penis–
(HAGGARD picks up the phone)
What’s your number?
You’re not calling my wife–
DR HAGGARD (Interrupting)
Have to–to get to the bottom of this.
Damn! No other way?
(DR HAGGARD and DR NULL both shake their heads)
Well, if you have to–996-9696.
(DR HAGGARD dials the number. HE puts the telephone on intercom so the conversation can be heard by all present. The phone rings, rings, and rings. Then the recorder comes on)
Hun, if this is you–have to tell you–it’s perfected–
(BOSWORTH talks sadly while the recorded message still plays)
I know–I know–It’s perfected–right around my–Big Guy. You’re shrinking–
Told you–you’d be the first to know. I won–I won–We’re going to be millionaires!
(BOSWORTH still talking sadly while the recorded message plays on)
–Big Guy–Yeah–It’s perfected. I’m your lab-rat–Big Guys shrinking.
He’s getting little!
I won the Hilary Award: One Whack Your Out–Silent without Violence Award! Hilary’s going to arrange some private testing–on one particular sex offender. If it works on her subject, she’ll finally be able to rid the White House of all the wild flowers that keep popping up.
(BOSWORTH still sadly talking while the recorded message plays on)
One- whack. Lab-rat.
They say–it’ll save the government millions, lowering the hotel bills. Testing going to be done on sex offender’s–they’ll lose their desire! OH, Hon, isn’t it great–isn’t it great-
END OF PLAY
Does the American government fit the definition of democracy in respect to the Constitution or is the Constitution strictly elitist?
According to The American Heritage Dictionary, the word democracy means:
1. (a) Government by the people exercised either directly or through elected representatives.
(b) A political unit with this form of government.
2. Social and political equality and respect for the individual within the community
The word elite means:
1. (a) The superior members of a social group.
(b) A small but powerful group.
Does the American government fit the definition of democracy in respect to the Constitution or is the Constitution strictly elitist?
The answer depends on the interpretation of the Constitution and most of all, who is doing the interpreting. The Constitution suggests an ‘elitist’ style of government whereby a few govern the majority. The original ideal bases its theory on equality and liberty, an extremely important element. The founding fathers (the white Anglo-Saxton Protestants) base the element of equality and liberty on their belief: Everyone is born a blank tablet, all equal.
The environment (the critical element) gives man the opportunity to be all he can be. Liberty (individual freedom of choice) grants people equality. The framers set up checks and balances in a Constitutional government to ensure equality and freedom and to alleviate oppression. However, the basis for the theory of the American Constitutional government never evolves to correct inadequacies gained after an internal war. The belief (man is born a blank tablet, equal) is only true when man is free to make his own choice; this aspect changes following the Civil War.
The war was said to give freedom to the slaves, but what actually transpires is only a token justice for the blacks; and in addition a mechanism by which control of all men (both black and white) is made to change the future. The establishment of control is brought about through behaviorism, mandatory schools, and the myths, leaving America and all its inhabitants to suffer the consequences. The eighteenth century philosophy of the framers becomes a mere illusion.
This is so because the application of a myth, behaviorism, and a mandatory school system controls, stifles, overwhelms, and blinds the common man; he is in a trap unaware of his circumstance with no way out other than the escape mechanisms the Impersonal forces provide. The Imperial force of Progressivism effectively steals the personal freedom and our blank tablet of equality when its theology creates and establishes sameness in place of individualism.
As a result of this inadequacy of the change in theology, a growing bureaucracy of corruption (evolving and transcending the politics) of government for the interest of those members of society who gain social superiority and economical superiority over the people (the majority).
Thus, instead of the Constitution, in conjunction with the Bill of Rights, granting equality and liberty for all as its equitable intent and purpose, the rights of the people evolve to the mercy of vice, corruption, and deceit, or the Supreme Court.
The Constitution, Article I, The Legislative Article, House of Representatives:
Apportionment; Section 2, “…direct Taxes shall be…included…according to…numbers…determined by adding to the whole Numbers of “free” Persons, including those bound to Service for a Term of Years,…excluding Indians not taxed, “three fifths of all other Persons.
Say What? “Three fifths of all other Persons”? This is Elitist terminology; they’re saying we are not equal. What do we have to be to count as a whole person? Changes take place following the civil war:
Amendment 14–Citizenship, Due Process, and Equal Protection of the Laws…Section 1
Ratified, July 9, 1868…”No state shall make or enforce any laws which…abridge the privileges of citizens…”
However what the federal government says or does depends on you. You don’t live in the federal government, you live in a state.
If the state makes or enforces laws that are contrary to federal law, it is the citizen’s responsibility to inform the federal government of the abridgement of those privileges. It takes time for Congress to Act. When citizens remain quiet, it is like sending up a signal saying, “Go ahead, have fun, abuse us; the federal government will not prosecute the State (at least not until, we the people object, loudly).
Section 2…”…When the right to vote…is denied to any of the ‘male’ inhabitants…”
Remember the 14th Amendment is ratified in 1868? Per Section 2, any male inhabitants (including blacks) following the civil war have the right to vote; all males are whole; they are citizens.
(What about me, the White woman, and also the Black woman? Aren’t we citizens? Don’t we have rights? Don’t we count? (Unfortunately, not yet). Token Justice is not Justice for all. Note this ratification does not occur until following the Civil War. And the black man, even though he gains his right to vote, is not able to exercise the right for another 100 years.
The elitist extend their reign of Superiority to the Amendments to protect whose rights?
Section 5…”The Congress shall have the power to enforce…the provisions of this article…
The Federal government gives–and the State government takes– away! Just because there is a gain in rights doesn’t mean you get to exercise those rights right away. You see. The “KKK” was watching –at the state level. The black man waits 100 years before he steps up and objects to his unfair treatment. The Federal government doesn’t step in to enforce the law as written over a state law until there is objection. Women protest their plight and gain their right to vote from the federal government and the state government before the black man gets the opportunity to exercise his right because the women organize and object.
Article I…Senate Compositions: Qualifications, Section 3…The Senate…shall be composed of…Senators from each State, ‘Chosen by the Legislative thereof,…”
What? You mean I, one of the people, can’t vote for my own Representative and that the elitist have to make that decision for me? I am not trusted to make a quality decision?
Well we will see about that . . .
Sure enough the people gain control with ratification of the 17th Amendment, the people will be choosing their representation in the Senate. The Senator will be obligated to voice ‘their will’, the will of the people.
The Amendment implies that anyone may run for Office, but in actuality, a person who is not a member of the social or money elite winning an election will be a rarity, if not a near impossibility, today. In reality, Senators are not obligated to vote the voice of the people. Instead, the majority listen to lobbyist, Big Business, and special interest groups (the elitist). After all, everyone knows “money talks”, “bull-hockey walks”. However, if the people pay attention, they can vote them out at the end of their term for not voting the “will of the people.” After a while it begins to sink in, the people want their will acted on.
ARTICLE I, Section 6, Rights of Members…”shall…be privileged from Arrest…”
Here is an elitist part. When elected, a seasonal license to lie, steal, and cheat is issued to representatives? They are Immune–from prosecution of a misdemeanor? This makes one wonder if this is why Maryjane reduces to a misdemeanor. Doesn’t anyone get MADD because of these special privileges? Is it okay for them to drink and drive? This article establishes a double standard: One set of rules for the people and different one (set of rules) for the elite? Is that fair?
ARTICLE I, Section 8, Powers of Congress, “To promote the Progress of Science and useful Arts . . .
That is except when it serves the purpose of the elite to Censor—-The public must not learn the truth; artist who insists upon telling the truth about their (Congress) purpose must be censored. In other words, the freedom of expression is removed as a right of the people at the will of the elite.
But what about my guaranteed rights under the Constitution? Say What? The Constitution doesn’t grant me rights? But what about:
The Bill of Rights?
Amendment 1–Religion, Speech, Assembly, and Politics…Congress shall make no law…prohibiting…abridging…freedom of speech . . . .the press, or the right to…petition the Government for redress of grievances.
You say what? I have to wait for at least fifty years…, but I am already fifty–I won’t need to feed myself then–I’ll be dead! What? –You say–that’s what they are counting on? Maybe if I learn the ropes, I can get my right sooner? (They have a Jungle-Jim? With ropes?)
ARTICLE I, Section 8, Powers of Congress, “…To make all Laws…necessary and proper for…Execution …
The “Elastic Clause” evolves the duties of the Judiciary, “uniquely” in an historical sense; Marbury vs. Madison sets the wheels in motion. With the help of the Civil War, the power of interpretation by the Supreme Court becomes cemented in with the outcome of McCulloch v. Maryland; an example is set in concrete, perplexing the system, yielding judicial power unsurpassed in the history of the world. The Elite issue an insurance policy of supremacy. You say to get around it I have to ride what?–a Merry-go-round! You have a Circus here too? How much did you say it would cost me? I–Yi-Yi-Yi! The nine Supreme beings now sit in control?
Article 1 (ART-I-(CHUCKLE), Section 9, Powers Denied to Congress…
“…The privilege of the Writ of Habeas Corpus shall not be suspended, unless…”
The purpose of the Elite shall be better served; the witch hunts, the “Red Scare”, Read-my–Palm-er, and Mc Cart-thy off, the snitch-man, witch-man, get under-the-desk, huntsman are proof of the “pudding”–“They stuck in their noise–where it didn’t belong–and pulled out a “Commie”, then said, ‘Oh, what a good Patriotic–“cheese”–boy am I!” What happened to our APPLE PIE? When did we revert to “yucky”–PUDDING? As a result, innocent people suffer unjustly, their freedom breached. Merely because the elite’s fear, not a revolution, not a threat, just- a- shiver- down -their -spine (guilt pangs from unjust practices–they remember what happened in Anatole France); all in the name of the elites’ freedom to oppress common man. (You say what?–your position is reaffirmed; I can’t escape?)
ARTICLE IV, Privileges and Immunities; Interstate Extradition, Section 2,
“A person charged…with…Treason…shall be delivered up on Claim…”
You mean I am not entitled to the due process of law? But–but–AMENDMENT 14 says: I shall not be deprived of my “life, Liberty, or Property” I am entitled to “equal protection under the laws”.
You say what?–that doesn’t apply to my situation–not when the witch- men are in control–those rights are only reserved in situations concerning the State!
Article 1 (ART-I-CHUCKLE), Powers Denied to Congress, Section 9, paragraph 4,
“No Capitation, or …direct, Tax shall be laid, unless…Census…”
But, Capitation means: fixed tax, an equal sum per person–O-o-o-o-o-OH! You–Amended that!
AMENDMENT 16–INCOME TAXES, (Ratified February 3, 1913), “…Congress shall have the power to lay–collect taxes on incomes…without apportionment…without regard…to enumeration.”
Did I hear you say–President Wilson–the E-l-i-t-e–have plans,–OH–it’s a secret! It is not for us to wonder why, we are only supposed to pay, not lie. To tax the elites will be to our defeat–so they say–we must pay. “No Capitation . . .tax shall be laid…”–read on you’ll be dismayed!
Article 1 (ART-I-CHUCKLE), Section 9, paragraph 8,”…no Person holding any Office…, shall…, accept…any present…, of any kind whatever, from any King, Prince, or foreign State.”
But if you like you may sell your “soul” to the “country store”–you can. Yep! As long as you don’t get caught, because if you get caught “King” and “Prince” interpretation may be “King of Big Business” and the “Prince of Wall Street”. “Advantage rather than responsibility is the name of the game”, as long as you don’t get caught it won’t be your shame.
Article II–THE EXECUTIVE ARTICLE, Nature and Scope of Presidential Power,
“…Each State shall appoint,…may direct, a Number of Electors…Vote by Ballot…the Votes shall be counted…The Person having the greatest Number of Votes shall be President.”
Disillusion! “A bummer, I thought my vote counts; boy, I am misinformed. Why bother voting? My vote doesn’t matter! The elite perceive me as a loser, unable to make an intelligent decision, so why should I prove them right? Isn’t that what they taught me in school?
ARTICLE I, Section 2, Powers and Duties of the President
“…he shall have the Power to grant Reprieves and Pardons of Offenses…”
Pathetic, bigoted, affluent child, Poor diminutive hereafter elite! He’s being restrained from instruction about reality, prison life. He’s being denied the privilege of justice of an education in prison. How’s he ever to progress, to comprehend the truth, never having the opportunity to mingle, rub elbows with the poor black and the white refuse? “President, sir, did you know you are denying the affluent child a glimpse of reality?” You say, you already have another throne to sit him on—you reserve the Electric throne for us! Am I supposed to thank you?
Article III–The Judicial Article, Section 1,
The Judges, both of the supreme and inferior Courts, shall hold their Offices during good Behavior,..”
Once you’re in. you’re in! Forever more! Until death do you part? The Constitution is Elitist; you have no right to interfere–unless one of those “little beneath our feet” people learn the secret and object through the legal process, then and only then may you review the laws. That is only because the Federalist papers imply that right to you, not that you are given that right in this Constitution–remember–only TOKEN justice–CAN YOU–WAKE-UP!–CAN YOU REMEMBER THAT?
The first ten amendments, the Bill of Rights, in conjunction with the Supreme Court, suggest our rights, the rights of the people, are protected. If the people can afford financially to fight for the rights through the courts, they may have one of them.
The 1st Amendment grants: Freedom of speech, Freedom of the press,
Right to assembly, right to petition the Government for redress of grievances—
But they are in the process of being changed–examples are being set–that elastic clause–worked for us once–it can just as easily go the other way–to work against us. Go ahead; read on. You are educated aren’t you?
AMENDMENT 2, “…THE RIGHT OF THE PEOPLE TO KEEP AND BEAR ARMS..” Don’t get excited, today you have it–tomorrow who knows?
AMENDMENT 3—AMENDMENT 4–SEARCH AND SEIZURES, “The right of the people…against unreasonable search and seizures, shall not be violated…”
Well, that “unreasonable” means something different–you may bolt the door, but it’s more expensive to replace a door than to open it..
AMENDMENT 5…Due Process, and Eminent Domain, “…No person shall be held to answer…EXCEPT in cases arising in the land…”
You might as well use white-out on the later.
AMENDMENT 6, CRIMINAL..—
This one only means criminals. We the people don’t count; we have to wait for our cases to be decided.
AMENDMENT 7, Trail by Jury–Common Law,
AMENDMENT 8, Bail….,
AMENDMENT 9–RIGHTS RETAINED BY THE PEOPLE, “The enumeration in the Constitution, OF CERTAIN RIGHTS, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people.
You mean we have rights, but only CERTAIN rights?
AMENDMENT 10, –RESERVED POWERS…,The powers not delegated…by the Constitution…are reserved to the States respectively, or the people.
What power is left? Maybe we have certain rights, maybe we don’t. One thing for sure, the Constitution is an elitist document. The Bill of Rights is the document that may have our backs.
One can say with Democracy in America Tyranny of the majority is born. A foreigner, a French man, says it all when he looks through the looking-glass into the “fairy-tale” land of America and says:
“The error arose from seeing the interest of the nobles perpetually contending with those of the people, without considering the issue of the contest, which was really the important point. When a community . . . is equally divided between adverse principles,–it must either experience a revolution, or fall into anarchy . . . social superior to all others must always be placed somewhere . . . liberty is endangered when this power finds an obstacle which can retard its course, and give it time to moderate its own vehemence . . . Unlimited is in itself a bad and dangerous thing. Human beings are not competent to exercise it with discretion. God alone can be omnipotent” (De Tocqueville 115).
Only Those Who Obey
By Trudy A. Martinez
The Bakersfield Californian reports (In 1994) that INS wants the news of deporting illegal Chinese immigrants kept quiet so mass crowds will not gather.
Am I supposed to believe deporting illegal immigrants will offend me and thus offended, I might protest? Not I.
When are officials going to learn hiding the truth brings out the masses, not telling the truth?
If I come out, my reason will be to cheer them on, not to yell protests.
Immigrants need to know, only those who obey the laws are welcome and those who do not are not.
It is as simple as this: Crossing the border illegally is against the law; this action alone (crossing illegally) shows you are not worthy to be here! Illegal aliens must stop; they must leave; and if they don’t leave on their own, we must deport them.
Current actions reflect the deporting of only those who disobey the laws after they cross the border. This is not enough. It does not send the correct message. It does not send a strong enough message!
In my opinion, what should happen when they protest (like the 500,000 did), the army should gather them up and take them right then back across the border. They are not citizens! (They do not have the same rights as citizens, nor should they be afforded the same rights.) When they come out in force, they should be met with force! And they should all be immediately deported!
Immigrants (who are legal) help to make this country prosper. Legal immigrants are wanted. Illegal immigrants game the system; they cost the taxpayers billions each year (6 billion annually in California alone) Illegal immigrants are NOT wanted.
I say, “Legal you’re okay!” “Illegal? Go home! We don’t want you to stay!”